Chronic BTJ injury often results in poor collagen fiber alignment, tendon cell degeneration, hypervascularity and changes in the cell density and FZT (Nakama et al.
The FZT of the CON group was significantly less than that of the injury groups.
Our study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent FZT transmission in nurseries in northern Vietnam.
These provinces were selected because of their known high prevalence of FZT infections among humans, animals, and cultured fish (8,9).
The FZT was significantly different between the PIERT and AI groups (213.
Chronic BTJ injury often results in poor collagen fibre alignment, tendon cell degeneration, hypervascularity, changes of cell density and FZT (Nakama et al.
We report an investigation that aimed to determine the FZT infection status in integrated small-scale hatcheries and nurseries in Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, and Bac Ninh provinces, which are major areas endemic for FZTs in Vietnam.
FZT infections in fry were examined by placing 5 fry on a glass slide, compressing them with another slide, and then examining for trematodes under a stereo microscope (x4) and a compound microscope (x100).
The study was conducted in November 2005 in Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam (Figure 1), in fish-farming households previously investigated for human and fish FZT infections (5,6).
A standard questionnaire was used to interview each animal's owner about the behavior of the animals and about animal husbandry practices relevant to transmission of FZT.
Public health and agricultural/fishery agencies should consider intestinal and liver flukes as an FZT complex because they share most biologic features and are risk factors for human infection.
The relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection and age of the host is also a characteristic of FZT epidemiology (1,4).