An earlier version of this instrument with 26 items aligned with Levels A and B of GAISE was validated to measure K-8 preservice teachers' self-efficacy for teaching statistics (Harrell-Williams, Sorto, Pierce, Lesser, & Murphy, 2014b).
For the open-ended portion, in each GAISE level, PSMTs were asked to identify an item which they felt least confident to teach and an item which they felt most confident to teach and to explain their reasoning.
Descriptive statistics were computed and paired-samples t tests were used to test for differences of PSMTs' statistical knowledge between GAISE Levels B and C.
As assumptions of normality and sphericity were not validated, a repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for significant differences in PSMTs' statistics teaching efficacy between the three GAISE levels.
As we have shown, PSMTs' statistical understandings diminish as the sophistication of topics increase from GAISE Level B to C.
As we have shown, PSMTs' confidence diminishes as the difficulty of topics increases from GAISE Level A, to B, to C, and thus, they are least confident in teaching typical high school content in the CCSSM.
The GAISE, however, urge the development of both students' cognitive and affective behaviors through an integrated approach to teaching of statistics.
An outline of the course in terms of goals, content, pedagogy, technological use, and assessment vis-a-vis GAISE is given below.
This study showed that the ability to reason with statistical ideas and the efficacy for accomplishing such tasks increased after taking an introductory statistics course aligned with the GAISE recommendations.
The overall design of this study was mainly correlation focusing on the changes (and variation) in the three learning outcomes over a course described vis-a-vis the GAISE.