2) Brilliant Pebbles (3) achieved or defined a clear path to most of the GPALS objectives for boost-phase BMD.
It is not cheap, either--a billion dollars a year was planned for system integration in the GPALS effort, and that was clearly not enough.
Gore's system would deploy 100--250 ground-based interceptors based at one or two sites, at a cost estimated at $60 billion (for comparison, the GPALS system was estimated to cost $63 billion in 1992 dollars).
has its GPALS system, other countries think missile defense is a good idea, too: Russia is developing its S-300, Israel its Arrow, France and Italy their (considerably more modest) Aster 30.
Palestinian Partnership (UPP), Case Foundation and USAID, Google hosted a GPals day in Ramallah.
GPALS also planned to incorporate "Brilliant Pebbles," a space-based MD program.
Without an enduring base of support and military value, single-mission systems are likely to fall victim to partisan politics or budget reductions much as the Nike-Zeus, Sentinel, Spartan, Brilliant Pebbles, GPALs
, and NMD systems of the past.
In the midst of that conflict, which featured the first operational engagements between ballistic missiles and missile defenses, the President announced that GPALS would be the architecture tot SDI.
President Clinton canceled both the SDI program and the GPALS plan in 1993, thus keeping the United States defenseless against the growing missile threat.