2) Brilliant Pebbles (3) achieved or defined a clear path to most of the GPALS objectives for boost-phase BMD.
Boost-phase defenses were developed to a significant level in the SDI and GPALS activities.
Reassured because the deterrent effect of its missile arsenal would remain intact for the time being, the Soviet Union (now Russia) welcomed the Bush administration's shift from SDI, which emphasized defense against large-scale attacks, to GPALS, which emphasized defense against limited attacks.
SBMD progressed through various programs, such as GPALS, Brilliant Pebbles, Clementine, and SBL, despite dwindling support from presidential administrations following President Reagan's.
It is not cheap, either--a billion dollars a year was planned for system integration in the GPALS
effort, and that was clearly not enough.
has its GPALS
system, other countries think missile defense is a good idea, too: Russia is developing its S-300, Israel its Arrow, France and Italy their (considerably more modest) Aster 30.
also planned to incorporate "Brilliant Pebbles," a space-based MD program.
In the midst of that conflict, which featured the first operational engagements between ballistic missiles and missile defenses, the President announced that GPALS
would be the architecture tot SDI.
President Clinton canceled both the SDI program and the GPALS
plan in 1993, thus keeping the United States defenseless against the growing missile threat.