The GSPE technique recommends that surveys occur after fresh or moderately fresh snow with complete ground coverage (Gasaway et al.
2001) using a helicopter for several reasons: 1) the area tends to have marginal snow cover each year making it difficult to complete a GSPE, 2) a helicopter can fly lower and more slowly with better visibility than a fixed-wing aircraft, helping to compensate for minimal snow cover, 3) line-transects can "fit" in the narrow riparian corridors better than GSPE blocks that typically encompass large portions of non-moose habitat, 4) distance sampling incorporates sightability corrections (e.
These conditions can limit GSPE surveys along the lower Kwethluk and Kisaralik Rivers in any given year.
We considered ~20 cm of snow accumulation as moderate to good conditions, required for the standard GSPE survey method.
Such narratives are of interest to wider society and academics because GSPEs are common (Haraldsson & Houtkooper, 1991) and experiences often affect individuals (Blackmore, 1988; Nelson, 1990; White, 1990).
The present study identified the complex social processes which influence and structure understanding of GSPEs and give meaning to anomalous/unusual phenomena (Wilde & Murray, 2010).
For example, Sarah, Leanne, and Nick validate their GSPEs by referring to dreams ("I was just dreaming"), mental illness ("but with having psychosis I know that the mind can produce images"), and ghosts ("I opened the door and there was a figure moving into the kitchen area").