The locations of the six MPAs used in this study (designated HELCOM
MPAs ) were obtained from the above HELCOM
Subsamples of 10 and 25 mL of the fixed samples were settled in a sedimentation chamber for 24 h and counted according to the Utermohl technique with an inverted microscope at 200 x and 400 x magnifications (Utermohl, 1958; HELCOM
, 2006b; Olenina et al.
Since 30% of the TN removal is achievable if the biological treatment process functions normally and operates properly without enhanced nitrogen removal (such as nitrification-denitrification process)  and considering HELCOM
recommendation (Table 1), the effluent concentrations for TN are calculated as 30% reduction of concentration of WWTPs' inflow (Table 2).
Despite the actions undertaken by HELCOM
countries, the overall eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea is still unacceptable (HELCOM
Zooplankton sampling and analysis followed the HELCOM
The project is expected to bring substantial environmental and public health benefits through reconstruction and modernisation of the existing wastewater treatment facilities to improve the quality of wastewater treatment for the City of Lida in line with HELCOM
requirements, thus improving on the quality, efficiency and reliability of the existing wastewater treatment arrangements, preventing breakages and leaks, and overall reducing pollution of the Baltic Sea basin.
The project is expected to bring substantial environmental and public health benefits through introduction of a new modern wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for the City of Polotsk to meet EU standards and HELCOM
recommendations for treated effluent quality, thus improving on the quality, efficiency and reliability of the existing wastewater treatment arrangements, preventing breakages and leaks, improving energy efficiency of wastewater transportation and treatment services, and overall reducing pollution of the Baltic Sea basin.
The Estonian monitoring method was based on the HELCOM
COMBINE guidelines (www.
Therefore, monitoring programmes of chemical pollutants including trace metals in fish, particularly in estuarine and semi-enclosed coastal areas, have been given priority by WHO, ICES, OSPAR, and HELCOM
If we analyze the environmental situation in the three states, then the cooperation in alleviating negative externalities is very much led by HELCOM
, the Council of the Baltic Sea States and regulated through the EU legal initiatives.
The model results for the period 1 June-1 November 1996 were compared with the observed sea level at Helsinki as well as the temperature and salinity profiles from monitoring stations Huovari, Langden and Lansi-Tonttu near the Finnish coast and three HELCOM
monitoring stations (BY7, BY15, BY29) in the Baltic Froper.
The abundance of cyanobacteria was analysed according to HELCOM