IAP2International Association of Public Participation
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These forms of communication reflect the lower end of participation (Inform) on the IAP2 spectrum.
An appropriate level of public participation should be selected using a tool such as the Public Participation Spectrum developed by the IAP2.
In the IAP2 spectrum, the steps are "inform," "consult," "involve," "collaborate," and "empower," with more delegatory power accorded to citizens as one moves through the continuum from left to right (international Association for Public Participation 2012).
PPGIS practitioners tend to use the ladders of public participation as the conceptual framework to guide public participation (Arnstein 1969, Weidemann and Femers 1993, IAP2 2004).