Examining the interaction between ECHR Article 10 and ICERD
70) For example, in its review of the United States' compliance with ICERD
in September 2014, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the United Nations' racism watchdog that monitors the implementation of the ICERD
, reiterated its concern about the "brutality and excessive use of force by law enforcement officials against members of racial and ethnic minorities" and "unarmed individuals .
prohibits not only intentional racial discrimination, but also discrimination in effect.
makes the state responsible for eliminating discrimination through coercive measures.
ICCPR Article 20 and ICERD
Article 4 have always set forth limited exceptions to the fundamental individual freedoms of expression and religion meant to protect individuals from violence or discrimination, not religious beliefs from criticism.
By December 1998, ICERD
had received 151 ratifications, which qualified it, according to an ILO Report (1999), as 'the most widely ratified of the United Nations human rights conventions.
Article 1(4) of the ICERD
, for example, excludes from the definition of "racial discrimination" "special measures" (such as affirmative action policies).
could be used to support a claim of violation of the right to
would find sufficient proof of illicit discrimination where state policy manifests a significant disproportionate impact that the state cannot justify by showing the policy in question serves some other, superior public interest and that it has tried all feasible means to mitigate the disparity.
also establishes a Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination to review reports from parties about their implementation of Convention provisions and to examine complaints by parties.
13) A ICERD
entrou em vigor em 1982, foi assinada pelo governo brasileiro em 1966 e ate junho de 2005 tinha sido ratificada por 183 Estados.
28) Australia has ratified a number of international human rights treaties relating to indigenous peoples: the ICERD
, the ICCPR, the optional protocol to the ICCPR, and ILO Convention no.