I construct an equivalent measure for local macroeconomic conditions using the combined ICRG
ratings for economic and financial risk.
data is only available to us until the year of 2012, all estimation periods end in 2012.
2007) therefore, the ICRG
measures are used one at time with the traditional FDI location determinants to avoid the possibility of multicollinearity (Biswas, 2002; Busse & Hefeker, 2007).
Data from the ICRG
index are used to test this corollary.
To note, since ICRG
index often becomes available only since 1984, to ensure that we cover here at least four (8-year) periods since the 1980-1987 period, we extrapolate the oldest available figure to 1980, by assuming that governance level did not change over the first few years.
168) The ICRG
process is an excellent example of "this play of quantification, this circulation of plus and minus points, [by which] the disciplinary apparatuses hierarchized the 'good' and 'bad' subjects in relation to one another.
Considerados esses objetivos, pontos equivalentes entre a pre-selecao para analises de casos do CAF--o Screening Process--(CPR 2005, 6) e as variaveis compreendidas no ICRG
se encontram na Tabela 3.
The institutional indicators taken from the ICRG
dataset are those for (1) bureaucratic quality, (2) corruption, (3) law and order, (4) ethnic tension, (5) external conflict, (6) internal conflict, (7) government stability, (8) investment profile, and (9) socioeconomic conditions.
Hence, cc and the ICRG
measure could be potentially very different--the correlation coefficient between cc and the ICRG
index is 0.
This middle corruption level can be seen in the fragment of PRS Group ICRG
, Corruption Index; Transparency International Corruption Perception Index; World Bank Institute and Heritage Foundation indexes.
defines things) than the UK and is significantly less
said it could wreak havoc on Israel by crashing every flying aircraft in Israel, but avoided doing so as ordered by Islam, implying that the Al-Qaeda or anyone else who caused the 9/11 attack were neither Muslims nor acting upon Koran and Islamic teachings.