Act's expanded authority of the IEEPA
was found to be
efforts under IEEPA
are bolstered by additional Congressional legislation.
authority of the President under IEEPA
, have upheld its
By enacting IEEPA
, Congress again narrowed the scope of the President's authority under TWEA to only wartime emergencies, and IEEPA
became the primary source for authorizing sanctions during peacetime.
Co-defendant Ahmad Mustafa, 57, of Columbia, a citizen of Iraq and a lawful permanent resident alien of the United States, pleaded guilty on December 17, 2009, to illegally transferring funds to Iraq in violation of IEEPA
The conventional critique of the Court's decision in Dames & Moore, like the critique of the Court's approach to cases involving statutory delegation, is that the Court softened the barriers between Justice Jackson's categories, allowing congressional opposition (inferred from the fact that IEEPA
gave the President several emergency authorities but omitted the very authority he sought to exercise) to be interpreted as congressional silence; (265) or allowing congressional silence (the absence of a specific statute that authorized the President's conduct) to be interpreted as congressional approval.
213) Even without such provisions in IEEPA
programs, courts have upheld the OFAC's use of written presentations alone, with no administrative hearing right.
In 1995, the President issued Executive Order 12947 pursuant to the IEEPA
This paper will explore to what extent section 106 of the PATRIOT Act conflicts with Brown and how a court would resolve this issue by examining definitions of enemy and states of warfare, the doctrine of military necessity, international law regarding unlawful expropriations, the application of customary international law in American jurisprudence, and the evolution of the IEEPA
However, the maximum civil penalty allowed by law under the authority of the IEEPA
is $10,000 per violation.
President under the general authority of IEEPA
and implemented by
He faces as much as 20 years in prison on the IEEPA
count and five years on the unlicensed money transmitting count.