Ecofys also concludes that "CTO use for biofuels did not cause displacement effects elsewhere, and hence CTO, a non-land using process residue, is a low ILUC
(Indirect Land Use Change) risk material.
While the moderate representatives disregard ILUCs
or consider them to be manageable, the radical members consider ILUCs
to be inevitable and are sceptical of the feasibility of effective political regulation (in a capitalist system).
Lastly, while the group of five backed the inclusion of ILUC
factors ('once we have a solid scientific basis,' clarified Copenhagen), Poland rejected any reference to these factors and Hungary proposed to assign them a null factor.
effects will now be considered when assessing the greenhouse gas performance , of biofuels: each feedstock will get an ILUC
factor, which will be added to the assumed amount of carbon generated by a biofuel's production and use.
Examples of DLUC and ILUC
generated by biofuels in the countries where its production is promoted include the following:
Even when uncertainties are high, there is strong evidence that the ILUC
effect is significant and that this effect is crop?
Several environmental and academic groups argued that, as a result of ILUC
costs, corn ethanol should not be permissible under the RFS2.
incomplete LU factorization, ILU, ILUC
, sparse Gaussian elimination, crout factorization, pre-conditioning, diagonal pivoting, Bunch-Kaufman pivoting, ILU with threshold, iterative methods, sparse symmetric matrices
They claim the proposal has loopholes that will allow EU member states to ignore the ILUC
criteria and ignore the greenhouse gas emissions caused in the production of biofuels when estimating EU member state required reductions.
It continued: "The decision to deliver a report on ILUC
by the end of 2010 is in line with what the industry has constantly advocated.
The objective of the contract is to provide technical assistance concerning the reporting requirements of the European Commission on biofuels and other renewable fuels stemming from the Directive (EU) 2015/1513 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the measures aiming to address the ILUC
impacts of the EU biofuel policy.
On 12 December, the member states' energy ministers took a position on whether or not to include the ILUC
(indirect land use change) factors in the two directives laying down the conditions for member states to include biofuels in their objectives for renewables in transport.