Therefore, the temporal changes in the mRNA levels of transcription factors and differentiation markers of adipogenesis were assessed in response to 20 [micro]M TPP and 20 [micro]M IPTP relative to MID controls.
CEBPA levels were also increased following treatment with both TPP and IPTP during adipogenesis compared with MID controls (Figure 3B).
Transcriptional Profiling of Human Primary Preadipocytes Treated with TPP, IPTP, and Troglitazone
To further investigate the effects of TPP and IPTP on the adipogenic pathway, human primary preadipocytes were differentiated in the presence of MID supplemented with 20 [micro]M TPP, 20 [micro]M IPTP, or 5 [micro]M troglitazone.
By contrast, other genes including ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 4C1 (SLCO4C1), and FABP3 were significantly increased by IPTP and not TPP (Figure 5D-F).
Canonical Pathways and Upstream Regulators Identified in IPA's Knowledge Base in Human Primary Preadipocytes Treated with TPP and IPTP
In addition, there were several common pathways between TPP and IPTP treatments, such as liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) activation, cholesterol biosynthesis I, and lipopolyscharide (LPS)/interleukin-1 (IL-1)mediated inhibition of RXR function (Table 2A,B).
2005), was predicted to be active only in TPP and troglitazone treatments but not IPTP (Table 3).
IPTP had many more upstream regulators identified in IPA from which the top ones based on the number of molecules involved are being listed (Table 5B).
Further, we found that IPTP was able to increase lipid accumulation and FABP4 protein expression at lower concentrations than TPP.
Using a murine model, others have shown that TPP and IPTP increased lipid accumulation; however, it is unclear which nuclear receptor these chemicals are targeting because murine cell models require either dexamethasone or troglitazone for differentiation (Gimble et al.
Interestingly, we found that IPTP treatment resulted in twice the number of affected DEGs as TPP.