The IQU illustrates slight differences between tabloid and quality presses.
As observed for parties' press releases, the share of the subindex for respect in the IQU is the highest of all subindices and shows no evident differences between newspapers or campaigns (Table 7).
The IQU of parties' press releases is twice as high as the IQU of newspaper articles.
A main difference between parties (in the aggregate) and newspapers (in the aggregate) is that the IQU in parties' press releases has decreased slightly but steadily over time, whereas the IQU in newspaper articles has increased.
The decrease in the IQU of parties' communication apparently seems to follow changes in Austrian politics, which is characterized by a shift from consensual political party culture to an individualized and controversial political culture, as outlined above.
Based on these findings, we assume that for the study of deliberation, it is essential that future research investigate the IQU in different political settings and cultures, such as in conflict democracies, and their influence on the IQU.
The mean IQU was 0-58 (standard deviation = 0-124), and the IQU values ranged from 0-34 to 0-84 with high inequality in the municipal centre.
From the results of Model 3 (best fit), it was concluded that both the IQU and random effects contribute to an explanation of leprosy detection in Vitoria.
A spatial pattern, according to neighbourhood, can be observed between Figure 1A (top) and Figure 2A (below), and a similar pattern is observed between the IQU value and [b.
This finding is clearly apparent when analysing the thematic map of the Vitoria Municipality (Figure 1), wherein the leprosy rate is greater in areas with lower IQU, or those with lower socioeconomic status.
This uneven disease distribution pattern, observed on the thematic maps, indicates that there is a greater risk of contracting leprosy in areas with lower IQU, compared to those with higher IQU.
The results also show that geographic patterns remain, even after accounting for the impact of poverty as measured by the IQU.