IUCRCIndustry-University Cooperative Research Center
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Acknowledgements: Major support for these studies from NSF IUCRC and NSF MRSEC is gratefully acknowledged.
University research centers such as ERCs and IUCRCs became the focal point of this study since they encompass diverse I/U relationships having an explicit mission to advance knowledge and new technologies with industry (Betz, 1996; Geisler, 1995; Mowery & Shane, 2002).
Both CRADAs and IUCRCs are incentive-based policy initiatives put in place around 1980 whose aim was to promote knowledge transfer from the public sector to private industry.