diphtheriae endocarditis have underlying cardiac disease, prosthetic valves, or a history of IVDU
Attitudes of stigma associated with HIV infection, homosexuality, and IVDU
were apparent from the Group's onset.
The general model specified self-reported IVDU
and history of sharing needles as an outcome with selected demographic variables including ethnicity, age, education, and income prior to incarceration as predictor variables.
The population included 142 patients (36%) with IVDU
risk, 58 (15%) with heterosexual risk, .
Among adult females, two-thirds were considered to be infected through IVDU
and 19 percent by heterosexual transmission.
For example, by the end of 1990, homosexual males who were not IVDUs
comprised 58 percent of the cumulative cases reported nationwide (Centers for Disease Control, 1991), compared with 79 percent in California (California Department of Health Services, 1991).
These cases resembled IHCA candidemia because cancer and other chronic diseases were common concomitant conditions and established risk factors were often present, although less frequently, than in IHCA infection; they differed from CA candidemia in instances in which IVDU
was a risk factor.
State with high IVDU
and/or homeless populations expressed a special need for some form of bed and board care, although no waiver program covers this service.
Demographic characteristics of patients in W14 group (a) Characteristics N=22 (%) Gender Male 13 (59) Female 9 (49) Race Non-Hispanic black 17 (77) Hispanic white 4 (18) Asian 1 (5) Age at diagnosis Median age (range) 38 (1-83) 25-50 years 16 (73) HIV serology Seropositive 14 (64) Seronegative 5 (23) Unknown 3 (13) Country of birth US born 22 (100) Foreign born 0 (0) Risk factors IVDU
(b) 7 (32) Alcoholic 9 (41) Incarceration 2 (9) Homelessness 2 (9) Year of case report 1992 2 (9) 1993 7 (32) 1994 4 (18) 1995 1 (4) 1996 3 (14) 1997 3 (14) 1998 0 (0) 1999 2 (9) (a)All data are presented as number (percentage) except median age.
However, certain high-risk groups with anticipated repeat exposure, such as health care workers and IVDUs
, should have their antibody titres checked as a once-off.
In some instances, IVDUs
share syringes and needles, a practice that can lead to the transmission of serious blood-borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
101) Eighty percent of gay men, fifty-three percent of IVDUs
, and sixty-three percent of all others were aware of the change in rules, which received significant media attention.