56) Similarly, two projects funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) on river basin planning in Vietnam resulted in the creation of the Red River Basin Organization, as part of a larger IWRM
strategy, and changes in Vietnamese law and water policy.
Despite this conceptual promise, however, many observers fear IWRM
has proven more successful as an incantation than in implementation.
2, which shows the IWRM
policy discussions evolution (pp.
The ideal geographic scope of IWRM
varies but generally
water, transportation, energy and industry) to understand the principles and practice of IWRM
and to support sustainable human development.
We are in urgent need for applying the concept of IWRM
, in all its aspects," he stressed.
is a policy of management based on the generally accepted principles: * Hydrologic boundaries basin-based management, i.
is the process of promoting the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems[4,5].
The adaptiveness of IWRM
; analysing European IWRM
The definition of IWRM
as "aprocess which promotes the co-ordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems" clearly expresses that governance is a fundamental element in the process.
The Johannesburg Plan of Action that emerged from the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development called for all countries to develop IWRM
and water efficiency plans by 2005.
It reflects critically on the meaning and concept of IWRM
(Integrated Waler Resources Management) in the context of South Asia.