A summary of omnibus and planned comparisons for testing the IZOF hypothesis is shown in Table 2.
Positive and negative affect scores were not intraindividualized but the IZOFs were, in that once an affect score was identified with a best performance score, the participant's own standard deviation was used to create their IZOF.
The hypothesis that precompetitive PNA associated with best performance would fall within one's IZOF was supported if overall F-ratios were significant and groups means indicated significantly higher performance scores for the "in" group compared to the other two groups.
This analysis tested the hypothesis that performance would be best when PNA scores fall within one's pre-determined IZOF and intraindividualized to more accurately examine the idiographic IZOF approach (Hanin, 1995).
Another issue in the IZOF model is the emphasis given on intra-individual analyses.
The results of the study so far interpreted within the IZOF framework, can also be in part discussed in terms of the catastrophe theory (Hardy, 1990, 1996).
Further research is needed to address important issues such as the use of debilitating affect in scaling procedures, the test of the IZOF model within other theoretical frameworks (e.
Investigations designed to test the expanded IZOF model comprising emotions other than anxiety are to date quite scarce, and measures used were emotions and performance (Robazza, Bortoli, & Nougier, 1999; Robazza, Bortoli, Zadro, & Nougier, 1998; Syrja, Hanin, & Pesonen, 1995; Syrja, Hanin, & Tarvonen, 1995; for discussion, see Gould & Tuffey, 1996; Hanin, 1997).
The multidimensional anxiety and the catastrophe approaches attempt to describe the debilitating-facilitating effects of anxiety and self-confidence towards performance, whereas the reversal theory and the IZOF model encompass a broader range of emotions.
In its earlier version, the IZOF model was proposed by Hanin (1980, 1986) to account for the wide variability in state anxiety scores often found in field studies across contestants of different sports.
The IZOF model has been more recently extended beyond anxiety to include a wide range of idiosyncratic positive (pleasant) and negative (unpleasant) affect facilitating or inhibiting performance (Hanin, 1993, 1997, 2000b, 2000c).
Most research so far conducted within the IZOF framework employed idiosyncratic scales of emotion adjectives, but disregarded physiological descriptors or states associated with emotions.