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IONSInstitute of Noetic Sciences
IONSINTEX (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment) Ozonesonde Network Study
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References in periodicals archive ?
Much as markings delineate a topographic map, a series of lines meander around groups of ions.
MacKinnon later identified the structure of a channel that regulates the flow of chlorine ions.
Most scientists had thought that the voltage-sensing regions of the pore would be hidden within the ion channel, but instead they jut out as hinged projections that MacKinnon calls "paddles" In hindsight, he adds, it's clear that the free-moving nature of these four, positively charged paddles accounts, at least in part, for the difficulties in crystallizing the pores.
However, he says, the researchers' calculations consider only 32 water molecules around each ion and don't include an energy barrier that water molecules must overcome as they change their structure and permit passage of the ions.
These snapshots provided immediate insight into questions such as how the channel can shuttle up to 100 million potassium ions across a cell membrane in a single second while keeping out similarly charged sodium ions, whose smaller size would seem to make passage even easier.
Turco and his coworkers suggest that ions created by cosmic rays form the nucleus of many aerosol particles.
But this recent re-branding announcement requires that Positive Ions make some public statement to reassure its existing users and advertisers that it is still pursuing its rights in Court.
The researchers used a combination of magnetic and electric fields to trap the million beryllium ions at a temperature of less than 10 millikelvins.
Normally, each ion in the row oscillates about an equilibrium position, and repulsive electric forces between adjacent ions induce a collective motion shared by all the ions (see diagram).
Scientists had not known, however, where on the crocodile hemoglobin's amino acid chains the bicarbonate ions bind.
More-over, because ions stored in SuperEBIT are practically stationary, researchers also avoid having to correct for relativistic effects caused by the motion of ions at close to the speed of light.
Moreover, nudging the ions closer together increased the spacing of the patterns fringes.