to continue its practices, and demanded assurances that if JARPA II
In March 2014 the ICJ found that while JARPA II could be broadly
characterization of JARPA II's actions as "for the purposes of
It added: "The court concludes that the special permits granted by Japan for the killing, taking and treating of whales in connection with JARPA
II are not 'for purposes of scientific research' pursuant to [the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling].
very heavily subsidizes the whaling operations under JARPA
II [the Plan for the Second Phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic].
Canberra took Tokyo to court in 2010, saying that more than 10,000 whales have been killed since 1988 as a result of Japan's JARPA
II research programmes, allegedly putting the Asian nation in breach of international conventions and its obligation to preserve marine mammals and their environment.
In 2005, Japan began a new, long-term research program in the Antarctic (known as JARPA
II) without having first analyzed the results of its prior 18 year research program (JARPA
I) which included the killing of thousands of Antarctic minke whales.