First, on average, 90 percent of the NWSP/MIP areas were mechanically ploughed as compared to 45 percent in the KIP and 15 percent in the KEIP.
Now, except for a few observation years, the NORM1 of the MIP, the KIP, and the KEIP is smaller than unity.
0 percent in 1990; (ii) with the exception of a few observation years, NORM2 of the KIP and the KEIP are greater than unity, implying that the owner-operators are expected to repossess the previously rented-out farmlands.
From the discussion of the farm profitability of the KEIP and KIP's tenant-farmers (NORM1) and owner-operators (NORM2), it is obvious that: (i) both tenancy groups made sufficient profits out of farming; and (ii) while the percentage share of the owner-operators has decreased, that of the tenant-farmers has increased over the period of study.
B]) of the KEIP and the KIP is increasing over time.
While in the NWSP and the MIP farming areas the market rental rate of land was found to be larger than the shadow value, in the KEIP and the KIP farming areas the opposite pattern was observed.
In the KIP and the KEIP, starting from 1985-86, the shadow value of labour was greater than the unskilled wage rate, but still lower than the electronics wage rates (in most of the years).
In the case of the KIP and the KEIP, the trend was not so obvious.