It is unclear what factors influenced the apparent emergence of KFDV in Shimoga District, India, in 1957 and in the Makkah/Jeddah region in Saudi Arabia in 1994.
A high percentage of birds in the affected area are positive for antibodies reactive with KFDV and infested with Haemaphysalis spp.
The current known distribution of KFDV is limited to relatively restricted areas of India and Saudi Arabia.
We sequenced the homologous regions of KFDV strain P9605 (corresponding to the first human isolate, isolated from blood in 1957 by Dandavate at the Virus Research Center at Vellore field station) for comparative analysis (R.
The existence of a more divergent lineage common to AHFV and KFDV was supported by a 100% bootstrap value.
1%) patients were positive for KFDV (78 by RT-PCR, 28 by IgM ELISA); 1 case-patient was also positive for dengue-specific IgM.
Third, the occurrence of cases in areas >5 km away from villages vaccinated in the previous year suggests that targeting vaccination to areas within a 5-km radius of reported KFD activity may not be effective in preventing KFDV transmission outside the vaccinated areas.
During December 2011-March 2012, a total of 215 suspected KFD case-patients were identified in 80 villages in Shimoga District; laboratory testing confirmed that 61 (28%) were infected with KFDV (5).
Additional samples from humans with suspected KFDV infection, monkeys, and tick pools were received from Chamarajanagar District and adjoining border areas of Tamil Nadu State and Kerala State (Table).
A recent outbreak of KFDV
was reported during 2011-12, affected 80 villages across the Shimoga district of Karnataka.
In India, KFDV has been isolated from Ornithodoros spp.
Previous analysis of KFDV and AHFV suggested slow evolution with divergence [approximately equal to]33 years ago (10).