KMBOKort Middelbaar Beroeps Onderwijs (Dutch: Short Secondary Vocational Education; Netherlands)
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Other less common but growing means of obtaining craft-level qualifications are through formal apprenticeship programmes where trainees continue to attend college courses part-time after taking up employment, and through two-year full-time college-based courses (known as KMBO courses) which arrange work placements for trainees with local employers[5].
Initial training programmes may also be accelerated by recruiting students from local KMBO courses (as described above) who have previously undertaken work placements at the companies in question; roughly half the plants in our Dutch sample engaged in recruitment practices of this kind.
For details of recent Dutch reforms to apprentice training and to the vocational education and training system in general, see [12,13]; for a description of KMBO ("short intermediate") courses of vocational education, see [14].