1), and encompassed the southern flanks of the central Brooks Range, including the southeastern portion of GAAR, all of KNWR, and other state, federal, private, and native lands.
1) were designated as 'northern moose' and those in and around KNWR as 'southern moose'.
The mean annual home range was smallest for cows found primarily within the KNWR (n = 5; 199.
An additional 21 used KNWR and areas outside the refuge, and of these, only 1 bull and 2 cows (14.
The study was in the upper Koyukuk River drainage that encompasses the southern slopes of the central Brooks Range, including the southeastern portion of GAAR, all of KNWR, and other state, federal (including portions of the DHCMA), and native lands (Fig.
Nonetheless, in GAAR where hunting and trapping regulations are restrictive, cows moved less than cows in KNWR where limited, but more hunting and trapping occurs--weakening the predator abundance explanation.