Prior to exploring LCCP, several Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) studies were conducted, starting in the early 1990s when alternative refrigerants were implemented to replace CFC and HCFC refrigerants.
The concept of LCCP is more comprehensive than TEWI, which ignores the greenhouse gas emissions during chemical manufacturing, the energy embodied in product materials, and end-of-life losses.
The LCCP used the ArcGIS Majority Filter and Boundary Clean functions to reduce speckling and smooth borders between land cover types.
The LCCP converted contemporaneous vector roadway networks and railroads to raster and superimposed them over the original FWC land cover data to restore the integrity of linear transportation networks.
Zhang and Muehlbauer (2012) have created an LCCP model for residential heat pump systems.
In our study, we focus on evaluation of LCCP of a 30 kW (8.
For instance, AHRI developed an LCCP tool for residential heat pumps that evaluates direct and indirect GWP contributions throughout the life of a heat pump based on defining both heating and cooling loads for various cities in the United States (Zhang, 2011).
Today there are a number of proposed near R-410A "drop in" candidates with GWPs in the 500-675 GWP range which can reduce the direct impact roughly to less than 2 percent of the total LCCP.
LCCP = [summation](Direct emissions + Indirect Emissions) (1)
The refrigerant charge for respective systems for the LCCP analysis was assumed as follows:
Finally, LCCP was calculated for each case, R-410A, DR-4, and DR-5, using the same assumptions for leakage and refrigerant recovery, but taking credit for the lower energy consumption and lower direct GWP values of DR-4 and 5.
The GWP of DR-5 is near 500, about 76 % less than that of R-410A, and its energy performance and LCCP are superior.