In addition to collective bargaining statutes, civil service statutes, and LEOBRs, a number of states have passed or recently considered additional employment protections designed to shield police officers from harassment or privacy violations.
Police union contracts, civil service laws, and LEOBRs provide police officers with an array of legal protections in cases of internal disciplinary investigations.
122) Thus, it seems theoretically plausible that police unions may be able to obtain unreasonably favorable disciplinary procedures through collective bargaining--perhaps beyond those that exist in civil service statutes or LEOBRs.
141) Many of the collective bargaining agreements in this study place some significant limitation on the interrogations of police officers--particularly those in states that do not already provide comparable protections through LEOBRs.
Yet in many of the nation's largest cities, supervisors cannot always respond to external legal pressure by implementing rigorous disciplinary procedures because of collective bargaining agreements, civil service laws, and LEOBRs.
If transparency and public participation did not prevent the passage of LEOBRs in sixteen states, why would it prevent municipalities from passing similarly protective measures after a public debate?
Only 32 percent of states have passed LEOBRs through their state legislatures, while it appears that a higher portion of large municipalities that engage in collective bargaining with their police forces have restricted internal investigations in some potentially problematic way.
For another helpful analysis of LEOBRs, which describes their proliferation and ultimately argues that these laws could serve as a useful way to reform civilian interrogations, see generally Kate Levine, Police Suspects.