8) Although LFPRs
rose only for those with less than high school during the time from 1994 to 2014, their participation rates remained the lowest, at 45% in 2014, followed by those with high school (58%), some college (67%), and 75% for those with at least a university (or college) degree (U.
In particular, cyclical fluctuations are smaller in the LFPR
than in employment, because changes in employment over the business cycle are partially offset by opposite changes in unemployment.
There has been a decline from 41 per cent to 29 per cent in rural female LFPR
between 2004-05 and 2011-12 respectively.
and Life expectancy measure the degree of emancipation and equality in society and should thus capture the same variation in the soccer performance of men and women.
Such analyses break a composite indicator, in this case the LFPR
, into subcomponents and hold some variables constant while allowing others to vary over time.
2014) have concluded that all of the 2007-2014 decline in the LFPR
has been due to secular factors and none to cyclical factors.
Higher state unemployment rates reduce the LFPR
(decline of 7 percentage point due to 10 percentage point increase in unemployment).
I proposed a simple method of calculating the growth rate of potential GDP based on estimates of each component of the "output identity," a definition linking output to productivity, hours per employee, the employment rate, the LFPR
, and the size of the population.
As a result, overall LFPR
stood at 66% in 2007 on the eve of the Great Recession--down from the 67.
43 6766 TABLE 2 Descriptive Statistics: Municipalities' Controls M SD Min Max N LFPR
The male-female decomposition of LFPR
has revealed that LFPR
noticed marginal decline for males both in rural and urban areas.
Employment Growth under Different Scenarios Average monthly employment gains, thousands Model SPF GDP Cyclical 1980s SDF GDP scenario LFPR
labor with cyclical LFPR
Turnover: Turnover: Turnover: Turnover: Turnover: Low Low Low High Low GDP: High GDP: Low GDP: High GDP: High GDP: LOW LFPR
: Trend Trend Cyclical Trend Cyclical 2013 149 108 147 222 106 2014 160 92 225 119 165 2015 104 156 174 80 224 Long run 46 46 84 46 84 6.