For some, marriage equality is also desirable because it will enhance the respectability and social approval of LGBQ people by encouraging monogamous dyadic relationships, long-term commitments, and the creation of stable nuclear families suitable for child rearing; these norms point to conservative ideological underpinnings in some discourses that champion marriage equality (Duggan 2002; Yep et al.
While not necessarily positioning themselves against marriage equality, critical scholars note that the participation of LGB individuals in the institution of marriage may assimilate the LGBQ community into sexist and heteronormative relational norms that stratify individuals and relationships and bolster neoliberal regimes of commodification.
These debates reveal that marriage equality cannot be easily categorized as an uncomplicated positive or negative shift, but rather represents an inherently complex moment for LGBQ politics, and requires that we remain attentive to the ways in which legal changes bear upon various social groups differently.
Participants were recruited through LGBQ blogs and community websites, email listservs for LGBQ programs, posters in bars and on the street, the University of Toronto (UofT) online announcements board, and word of mouth.
Place shifts relationships and access to identifiers, and the ability to express LGBQ subjectivity varies depending on the place: be it a nation, city, street, or house.
The women in this study all describe themselves as out in their daily lives, meaning that they have disclosed their sexuality to friends and coworkers, they frequent LGBQ spaces, and some partake in queer activism.
The following comments from Nkechi express her struggles with negotiating coming out around Blackness, Nigerian-ness, and family and she speaks of a divide between herself and other LGBQ Black women in America:
The six LGBQ women of the Nigerian diaspora featured in this project are negotiating the lived experience of multiple subject positionings.
Female LGBQ and trans participants were more likely than male GBQ participants to feel isolated at school.
Female LGB students were more likely than male GBQ students to see these places as unsafe, trans students more likely than LGBQ students, and students with LGBTQ parents more likely than those with heterosexual parents (see Table 5).
When we compared data between LGBQ and trans youth, results revealed even higher percentages of feeling unsafe in school for trans students than for LGBQ students: more than three-quarters of trans students indicated feeling unsafe in some way at school, compared with just over three-fifths of LGBQ students (78.
Further, female LGBQ students in our study were much more likely than male GBQ students (73.