The important takeaway, however, is how differently LPPC behaves when interacted with divided government.
To further clarify this relationship, I model predicted counts for all three categorizations of signing statements based on changing values of LPPC and the divided government variables.
When LPPC is held at its mean, divided government has no effect on how many signing statements, substantive signing statements, or substantive actions presidents issue.
Majority Party and LPPC Scores are statistically significant and in the expected direction when controlling for term year and quarter fixed effects.
None of the other types of crises or institutional variables are significant, though in the simplest model, in addition to Foreign Policy Crisis, Divided Government, Majority Party, and LPPC Scores, are statistically significant and in the expected direction.
As above, we find no support for the evasion hypothesis; the coefficient on the LPPC score remains negative and significant.
The effect of divided government is also negligible, and the sign on the LPPC score remains negative but is no longer significant.
Turning to the issue of "stranded costs" -- deciding who pays when huge utility investments are "stranded" by large customers who change suppliers in a newly competitive market -- LPPC said "public power and investor-owned utilities must share the same right to recover stranded investment.
LPPC has objected to certain provisions which would make it more difficult for publicly owned utilities to recoup stranded losses in a new, competitive marketplace without jeopardizing essential components of tax status.
Fussell will direct LPPC
from the company's new executive offices in Baton Rouge, La.
In a statement responding to a FERC request for comments on the proposal, the LPPC asked the commission to authorize establishment of RTGs through administrative action.
What the LPPC is looking for," Flynn said in separate comments, "is a plan that provides for voluntary access while also ensuring ultimate FERC oversight.