Measured at age 10 in the BCS and 14 in the LSYPE, (5) this variable captures the proportion of pupils in the cohort member's school who are not from low SES families (BCS) or not eligible for free school meals (LSYPE) and ranges from 0 to 1.
Table 1 summarises the main economic status of young people in the two cohorts when they are aged 18, which in the BCS was in 1988 and in the LSYPE was in 2009.
Compared to BCS, considerably more young people in LSYPE were categorised as being NEET (16.
Parents in the later-born LSYPE were better educated.
In LSYPE low parental education is not significantly associated with education participation at age 18, suggesting increasing educational mobility in the later born cohort.
In line with the descriptives outlined above, the later born LSYPE cohort is more likely to be NEET at 18 and shows a stronger relationship between experience of social risks and the likelihood of being NEET.
For the LSYPE, a smaller proportion, 42 per cent, of young people experiencing earlier risks goes on to avoid becoming NEET at 18.
Reflecting the summary statistics discussed above, 5 per cent of the BCS cohort can be categorised in the expected group while for the LSYPE this group is twice as big and includes one in ten 18 year-olds.
For both being NEET at 18 and particularly being persistently NEET, the likelihood of beating the odds is lower for the LSYPE than the BCS, indicating they are more affected by socioeconomic adversity than the earlier born cohort.
For the later born LSYPE, early labour market engagement is also protective but only for the static measure of being NEET at 18 and not the more dynamic, longitudinal definition.
In LSYPE it is mathematical skills that have a similar beneficial effect.
Comparison of the BCS and LSYPE cohorts shows a clear shift in the activities of young people, with the expansion of education and the corresponding reduction of labour market participation.