LTB4Leukotriene B4
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Further analysis showed that increased production of PGE2 and LTB4 by OA cartilage was significant (p < 0.
Ziboh and Fletcher [8] reported that 1500 mg of borage oil per day for six weeks increased the DGLA content in blood cells by 130% and reduced levels of LTB4.
LTB4 can at times create an over activation of neutrophil immune response and has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases involving excessive inflammation, including Cystic Fibrosis, COPD, Multiple Sclerosis, Irritable Bowel Disorders and a variety of dermatologic diseases.
Inhibition of atherogenesis in BLT1 -deficient mice reveals a role for LTB4 and BLT1 in smooth muscle cell recruitment.
Collectively, gammaT inhibits proinflammatory PGE2 and LTB4, decreases TNF-alpha, and attenuates inflammation-mediated damage.
These supplements operate downstream by either inhibiting the enzymes (the cyclo-oxygenase {COX} or lipo-oxygenase {LOX} enzymes) that produce pro-inflammatory eicosanoids such prostaglandins like PGE2 or leukotrienes like LTB4.
Targeted inflammatory mediators and cell types affected by the pluripotent mechanism of action of apremilast include: inhibition of production of TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-12, IL-23, IL-2, IL-5, IL-17, CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1a), IL-8, LTB4, and iNOS; inhibition of activation of T and NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, synovial macrophages, neutrophils, chondrocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells; as well as, the unique inhibition of joint pannus formation and cartilage erosion.
The individual ingredients are formulated to work synergistically to show distinct inhibitory affects on the production of LTB4 by 5- lipoxygenase and on the synthesis of PGE -2 by COX 1 and COX 2 enzymes.
It has been reported that Iso inhibits LTB4 synthesis (Zhang et al.
This measurement relied on the stimulation of LTB4 production in the human whole blood samples by addition of a calcium ionophore.
Importantly, LTB4 inhibition has been shown to be effective in treating additional pulmonary diseases such as Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Non-CF Bronchiectasis, suggesting that the platform may have substantial utility in treating a broad array of currently underserved patient populations.
LTA4H and LTB4 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation in CF.