LVAULeave Accrual Update
LVAULivelihoods and Vulnerability Analysis Unit (Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development; Afghanistan)
References in periodicals archive ?
These indices, which assess both the legal status of the central bank and its reputation for independence, are LVAU, an unweighted average of several legal characteristics, and QVAU, an unweighted average of survey results for central bank independence, from Cukierman (1992); EC, a rating of economic independence of the central bank, and POL, a rating of its political independence, from Grilli, Masciandaro, and Tabellini (1991); and the original index of central bank independence from Bade and Parkin (1982).
Second, one source used by Franzese (1999), namely, Cukierman's LVAU index, varies by decades only.
Turning to central bank autonomy, the variable LVAU is defined on the interval [0, 1], where the value one represents maximum autonomy.