The LWO took effect in 1997, but a majority of firms were not affected by the ordinance until after 1999.
To estimate the wage gains for workers from the LWO, we use an approach that is similar to the methodology used in the unobservables analysis above but with a few changes in specification and data.
The estimate of the wage gain for stayers attributable to the LWO is
Thus, to attribute the wage gain to the LWO specifically and not to unionization or changes in health benefits, we control for union and health benefits associated with each wage observation.
speakers compared homosexuality to alcoholism, something people struggle with throughout their lives.
The Berkeley City Council negated this practice on September 19, 2000 when it enacted an amendment to the LWO ("Marina Amendment") regarding employers operating on leased property in the Berkeley Marina.
Because RUI leases public land at the Berkeley Marina, employs more than six people, generates more than $350,000 in annual gross receipts, and has no collective bargaining agreement in force, the Marina Amendment imposed the requirements of the LWO on RUI's preexisting lease with the City.
51) Most revealing were the following facts: the City Council's realization that the Marina leases would not have open renegotiations for as long as seventeen years from the LWO's enactment; the urging of the Local 2850 that the City Council make the LWO immediately applicable to the Marina leases because it should not "leave behind .
The most debated question concerning the LWO
has been whether the city would end up paying the whole costs of the mandated higher wages and benefits and, if not, whether employers would respond by laying off workers,'' Sander said.
LWO proponents contend that employees who provide services to local governments should be paid wages that adequately meet the local costs of living.
However, Valletta points out that as with most government mandates, "the gains produced by the LWO are likely to be accompanied by costs, some of which are unintended and may interfere with the goal of increasing income for individuals who earn low wages.
In the October 15 issue of the FRBSF Economic Letter (99-31), San Francisco Fed Senior Economist Rob Valletta discusses issues important for understanding the impacts of LWOs in general, along with some specific aspects of San Francisco's law.