Estimating long-wave radiation
at the Earth's surface from measurements of specific humidity.
The maximum net long-wave radiation
flux on January and its minimum quantity on June in 2005 in the Bay transmitted from the sea to the atmosphere.
W [Btu/h]) is the net long-wave radiation
between this exterior surface and surrounding radiation sources, such as other buildings, the sky, and so on; [[?
To calculate the long-wave radiation from the atmosphere, the approach proposed in Kuzmin (1961) was used:
In March, the heat balance of the lake surface was predominantly negative, mainly due to the long-wave radiation heat loss.
Oke (1987) places the Sky View (canyon geometry) as one of the causes for the formation of heat islands, since it increases absorption and decreases the loss of long-wave radiation
sky]--emissivity of long-wave radiation from the sky; [[epsilon].
Under solar radiation, the temperature of exterior surface of the envelope increases, whereas the effect of long-wave radiation from the sky reduces it.
Whereas a pyrometer was used to measure low-level radiation on the spot, long-wave radiation
was calculated by means of the following formula (Swinback, 1963):
i] the incoming long-wave radiation
(on both leaf sides), [L.
Hertz used, as a device for detecting the possible presence of such long-wave radiation
, a simple loop of wire, with a small air gap at one point.
Orbiting above the top of the atmosphere, its sensors measure incoming solar short-wave radiation, short-wave radiation reflected off cloud tops and long-wave radiation
coming from Earth.