MAPKKKMitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase
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2] activates AtMPK3/6 by ANP1, the MAPKKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases) at the head of the cascade.
Activation of oxidative stress responses upon expression of a constitutively active derivative of the MAPKKK, ANP1, caused a simultaneous inhibition of the auxin response pathway (Yang et al.
Another study showed that a mutation in a putative Arabidopsis MAPKKK resulted in a mutant (edr1, improved disease resistance) with increased resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae without any phenotypic changes (Frye et al.