EDWARD ROTHSTEIN NYT SYNDICATE IN 1953, after the early successes of Soviet espionage demonstrated just how difficult and dangerous the Cold War would become, the Central Intelligence Agency began a top-secret programme called MKUltra
1953 - Project Mkultra
, a 11 year research to test drugs and biological agents to be used for mind control and behavior modification.
It belongs to a class of drugs known as quinolines, which were part of a 1956 human experiment study to investigate "toxic cerebral states," as part of the CIA's MKULTRA
Through operations variously known as Bluebird, Artichoke, MKUltra
, and by other names, the agency was exploring every known method of controlling minds.
Similarly, the CIA went to great lengths to keep the public from knowing about MKULTRA
, a human subject psychological research project, many of whose subjects were unaware they were participants.
He provides a useful history of CIA and military experiments with hypnosis, sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, electroshock, and drugs in coercive interrogations via ethically challenged programs (Project Chatter in 1949, Project Bluebird in 1950, Artichoke in 1951, and MKULTRA
in 1953), often upon unwitting human subjects, in an attempt to find a "brainwashing" mechanism.
The CIA's notorious MKUltra
mindcontrol experiments that began in this era, with a mission to develop operatives with advanced paranormal skills and an ultimate tool for undetectable surveillance, were the inspiration for this action-thriller.
1950s-1960s CIA program MKULTRA
uses LSD to conduct mind-control and chemical interrogation experiments on unwitting subjects.
25 (1977) [hereinafter MKULTRA
Hearing]; Human Drug Testing by the CIA, 1977: Hearings on S.
Claims of official participation in large-scale smuggling of illicit drugs to support covert foreign policies would seem outlandish if it were not for the well-documented revelations about the CIA's MKULTRA
research on drugs as instruments for interrogation and mind control in the 1960s (Lee and Shlain 19-35).
Alfred McCoy explains, "[t]the whole MKULTRA
program was a giant dead end.
in 1953, the CIA initiates Project MKULTRA
- an 11 year research program to produce and test drugs and biological agents that can be used for mind control and behavior modification; unwitting human subjects are used;