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In this study, we investigated whether acrylamide, methacrylamide, N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid used in polymeric biomaterial production had histopathological effects on renal tissue.
Glomerular lesion with increase of mesangial matrix in the glomerulus and glycogenic vacuolization in the tubular epithelium were identified in the 5th week after N-isopropylacrylamide exposure and as 6th week after acrylic acid exposure (Fig.
Glomerular atrophy, widening of the glomeruli space and necrotic tubular epithelium (pyknotic nuclei and acidophilic cytoplasm) first week after N-isopropylacrylamide exposure.
TUNEL staining showed numerous apoptotic cells in the first week after N-isopropylacrylamide exposure.
It is well known that the homopolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAM-100) shows a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or cloud point between 31 and 35[degrees]C (6, 8-13).
N-isopropylacrylamide (Eastman Chemical) was purified by two recrystallizations from ethyl acetate.
Synthesis of Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and Acrylamide: The homopolymers and copolymers of IPAM and AM were synthesized by free-radical polymerization in aqueous solution at 30[degrees]C under a nitrogen atmosphere using 0.
Reaction Parameters for the Copolymerization of Acrylamide(AM) with N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAM).
Another sample of the homopolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide, IPAM-100-2 ([[Eta]] = 3.
The homopolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAM-100) and all the copolymers show similar drag reduction profiles as those reported in Fig.
2% (~7mM) sodium dodecyl sulfate, the alkyl chain of the surfactant molecules associates with the N-isopropylacrylamide moieties on the polymer backbone (8), resulting in very high intrinsic viscosities relative to those in deionized water.
Key words: superabsorbent, carrageenan, acrylic acid, N-isopropylacrylamide, hydrogel, swelling.