Butler was a Spellman Seminary graduate, educator, delegate to the founding convention of the NACW
, organizer of the PTA, and advocate for the rights of children.
, a leadership organization dedicated to empowering, developing and advancing the success of women in the athletic administration profession, holds a national convention every year as the premier summit for women working in intercollegiate athletics to provide leadership training, newtworking and inspiration.
Part I places the founding of the NACW
(1896) and establishment of the nation's first juvenile court, the Cook County Juvenile Court in Illinois (1898), in the historical context of the Progressive Era's heightened racial oppression against black people.
Delilah Beasley understood, as all club women did, that notions of black womanhood framed all their social and political work; after all, the NACW
had formed in response to a white editor's claim that black women "were devoid of virtue.
An organization of local women's dubs, the NACW
was primarily an urban middle-class endeavor, and Margaret Murray Washington, wife of Booker T.
The convention of the NACW
, however, received major coverage by the media of the day.
A pivotal member of NACW
, she held leadership positions in several national organizations that addressed social justice, racial equality, and women's issues.
worked extensively on behalf of education, community improvement, and racial uplift in towns and cities around the United States.
Under Terrell's leadership, the NACW
asserted black women sameness with all females, yet it worked for racial uplift.
Initially established in 1894 to serve the Boston clubs, the Women's Era became the official organ of the NACW
two years later (Kennedy, 1993).
7) Such postures helped to produce a distinguished tradition of progressive activism among Black middle class women from the NACW
to the National Council of Negro Women and similar organizations today, but what was and remains problematic is the premise that middle class women necessarily embody a standard their poorer sisters should be encouraged to emulate.
Nevertheless, the statistical significance and magnitude of the coefficient of NACH in the equation for NACW
and vice versa bring out clearly the need for an analysis of a simultaneous-equation model.