We were able to estimate daily intake of nitrate from these sources for 87% of case mothers and 88% of control mothers who completed the water module of the NBDPS interview.
In the NBDPS interview, mothers were questioned about prescription and nonprescription drugs used (including start and stop dates) for specific illnesses and disorders and were also prompted for specific products.
2011b, 2012) of NBDPS, which included participants from all 10 sites, associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug exposure and several birth defects, including NTDs, cleft palate, conotruncal heart defects, atrioventricular septal defects, and single ventricle defects were stronger among women with the highest estimated intake of nitrite from dietary sources than in women with lower estimated dietary intakes.
Data on meat consumption (none or less than once, one to three times, four times, or more than four times per month) during the year before the pregnancy of interest was obtained from a Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire (58 food items) administered during the NBDPS CATI (Willett et al.
Distribution of maternal factors among employed (a) mothers of gastroschisis case infants and control infants, NBDPS, 1997-2002 [n (%)].
Participation in the NBDPS was 71% among gastroschisis case mothers and 68% among control mothers.
Specifically, 250 mother jobs were discordant for the estimated PAH exposure rating among 12,492 (2%) included in the entire NBDPS (i.
For instance, results from the NBDPS and a case--control study in Utah both suggest that the association between direct maternal smoking is stronger in women [greater than or equal to] 20 years of age than in younger women (Feldkamp et al.
Distributions of Soc major job groups held by mothers of gastroschisis case infants and control infants by estimated occupational PAH exposure status, NBDPS, 1997--2002.
Furthermore, the impact of recall bias appears to be minimal in the NBDPS for many important risk factors, such as maternal smoking (MacLehose et al.