The 2010 NJCLD
report Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students With Learning Disabilities provides guidance in this area (NJCLD
Several models of RTI exist, but all approaches share the core concepts that all students receive research-based instruction in general education, are screened for academic problems for which they need additional support, and are continuously screened with resulting data used to inform instruction (Howell, Patton, & Deiotte, 2008; NJCLD
An implication of the NJCLD
definition is that individuals will not show the same mix of LD-related behaviors in any particular work context.
These findings support the view that many youth with LD profoundly struggle with reading (Biancarosa & Snow, 2006; Lenz & Deshler, 2004; NJCLD
, 2008), and the majority of students with LD read below their current grade level (Wagner et al.
Related to this concept, students with learning disabilities can benefit from developing awareness of their disability (Cowen, 1993; Durlak, Rose, & Bursuck, 1994; Goldhammer & Brinckerhoff, 1992; Merchant & Gajar, 1997; NJCLD
, 1994; Taves & Hutchinson, 1993).
Over the past two decades since completion of NJCLD
papers in 1987 and 1997, changes in legislation, research, and education have not only brought change to many aspects of assessment and evaluation of all students, including students with learning disabilities, but also stimulated continued efforts to further enhance the assessment and evaluation process, as well as link it to instruction.
gifted and SLD) when responsiveness to instruction is reduced to an absolute standard of low achievement in RTI (LDA, 2006; NJCLD
was formed to remedy the perceived deficiencies, yet their definition remains apart because of the preeminence of the federal definition.
paper addresses critical issues related to the literacy needs of adolescents with LD and advocates for effective reading and writing instruction for these students.
recognizes the disconnect that occurs for students with LD as they attempt to use documentation from secondary education for postsecondary educational settings.
New legislation, advances in research, and changes in practice have occurred in the more than 20 years since the publication of the 1985 NJCLD
paper "Learning Disabilities and the Preschool Child" (NJCLD
considers and discusses contemporary issues in learning disabilities and develops and disseminates reports and statements related to these issues to influence policy and practice.