A similar study measured salivary cotinine in saliva and NNAL
in urine samples from non-smokers before and after being at an outside bar or restaurant or at a control site (St.
Prof Milunsky's findings - published in the journal Prenatal Diagnosis - discovered NNAL
in the amniotic fluid of 52 per cent of women smokers and seven per cent of non-smokers.
The study - published in the journal Prenatal Diagnosis - showed NNAL
in the wombs of 52 per cent of woman smokers and 7 per cent of non-smokers.
In addition, NNAL
levels are stable in smokers over time, and a single measurement can accurately reflect an individual's exposure.
Next-day creatinine-corrected urinary NNAL
concentrations also were higher than preexposure levels following bar and restaurant visits [1.
These urine samples were assessed for total NNAL
and total cotinine.
The researchers analyzed urine samples from each smoker, homing in on two breakdown products of NNK: NNAL
In commenting on the NNAL
levels among subjects using Ariva[R], the authors noted, "Interestingly, total NNAL
levels in subjects who used Ariva, although higher, were not significantly different from those in subjects who used the medicinal nicotine lozenge.
Lung cancer afflicts some smokers and not others, and now University of Minnesota researchers have hypothesised that the presence of the metabolite NNAL
in a patient's urine might predict risk of lung cancer.
One in two children examined - all under a year old - had traces of NNAL
, a substance produced only by cigarette fumes.
98% of the 144 infants studied had nicotine in their urine, 93% tested positive for cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, and 47% had significant levels of NNAL
, a carcinogen produced from a chemical in cigarette smoke.
A group of 144 babies were tested as part of the study and 47 per cent of them were found to have NNAL
, a chemical which is produced when the body processes NNK - a cancer-causing chemical from cigarettes.