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It is seen that electronic cigarettes have a higher amount of NNN when compared with nicotine replacement products such as nicotine band and nicotine gum in terms of TSNAs, and NNK is higher in nicotine band than in e-cigarette.
The objective of the study was, therefore, to compare the effects of water restriction on BW gains, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and water to feed ratios of NNK and OVB chickens.
A recent study indicated that nonsmokers who spent as little as 4 hours in a well-ventilated casino that permitted smoking had significant increases in NNK [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone], a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen (8).
The body may also convert nicotine into the chemical precursors of the carcinogen that scientists call NNK (SN: 10/28/00, p.
The researchers found that women with the smoking husbands had higher levels of nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL and NNAL-Gluc--two metabolites of NNK, a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen.
This study will test the effects of NNK on cultured mammalian tracheal epithelial cells using both acute and chronic testing protocols.
Tests have shown that 50g - or just under 2oz - of watercress eaten at three meals each day for three days produces enough of a chemical which neutralises the lung carcinogen NNK.
The chemical, NNK, is unique to tobacco and one of the strongest carcinogens in cigarette smoke.
By-products of a nicotine-derived chemical called NNK were found in the urine of infants born to smoking mothers, US researchers reported.
Since both NNK and benzo[[Alpha]]-pyrene are important tobacco carcinogens and lung cancer is attributed to tobacco usage, ITs may be a more effective chemoprotective agents for prevention of lung cancers.
Professor NNK, 'The ULIMO Leadership Crisis: not a Krahn-Mandingo War', Monrovia Daily News, 29 June 1994.
Some garlic components can inhibit NNK [a tobacco constituent that causes lung cancer] much more than tea," says Yang.
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