The objective of the study was, therefore, to compare the effects of water restriction on BW gains, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and water to feed ratios of NNK
and OVB chickens.
To find out, they tested the effect of nicotine and its derivative NNK
on normal lung cells in lab dishes.
In 22 of 31 samples from new-born babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy scientists found NNK
Levels of the NNK
by-products were about 10 per cent of those found in the urine of adult smokers - two-and-a-half times the equivalent adult concentration.
Some garlic components can inhibit NNK
[a tobacco constituent that causes lung cancer] much more than tea," says Yang.
Estimates of the risk from exposure to individual smoke constituents that have been analyzed show that many different compounds contribute to the risk of smoking, and even complete removal of any one compound or class of compounds, such as NNK
or all tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), would do little, if anything, to reduce the risks from smoking (Pankow et al.
Murphy and her colleagues, however, now offer evidence that enzymes in people can convert nicotine into aminoketone, the natural precursor of NNK
Levels of the NNK
by-products were about ten per cent of those found in the urine of adult smokers - two and a half times the adult concentration, weight-for-weight.
would activate heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein U (hnRNP-U) to allow the translocation of the TrCP proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, inducing the accumulation of the DNMT1 proteins.
Uptake of NNK
by nonsmokers exposed to SHS has been identified as a biochemical link between SHS exposure and lung cancer risk (DHHS 2006).
A group of 144 babies were tested as part of the study and 47 per cent of them were found to have NNAL, a chemical which is produced when the body processes NNK
- a cancer-causing chemical from cigarettes.
What health effects NNK
might have on a developing fetus have yet to be determined.