These findings regarding the delivery systems of NOD1 ligands and PGN strongly suggest that NOD1 can recognize not only invasive bacteria but also extracellular bacteria.
NOD1 is expressed in a broad range of both hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic cells and thus has the potential to fulfill a variety of immunologic functions.
Another role of cytosolic NOD1 in microbial infection also related to the fact that its signaling pathway is somewhat independent of that utilized by TLR ligands has been uncovered by Kim et al.
NOD1 (and NOD2) are also expressed by B and T cells but ligands for these innate factors elicit responses only when the cells are also stimulated via their respective Ag receptors.
Neutrophils are yet another hematopoietic cell that expresses functional NOD1 and indeed it has been shown that bone marrow neutrophils are preactivated by NOD1 (but not by NOD2) recognition of bacterial PGN translocated from the gut into the bone marrow.
As indicated above, NOD1 is also expressed in non-hematopoietic cells and indeed NOD1 responses in such cells may contribute to homeostasis or host defense against pathogens in a manner independent of concomitant NOD1 responses in APCs.
Igualmente, los resultados confirmaron que TLR9 y NOD1, aunque transcritos, aparentemente no son funcionales en este modelo.
MDA5, NOD1 y NOD2 y tambien las moleculas adaptadoras MD2.
Segun los resultados expuestos, los neutrofilos primarios tambien podrian expresar constitutivamente NOD1 y NOD2, tal como se demostro previamente (24).
Sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento muestran que la estimulacion de NOD1 con su respectivo ligando no induce la secrecion de citocinas proinflamatorias (IL-1[beta].
NODIike receptors and RIG-I-Iike receptors in human eosinophils: activation by NOD1 and NOD2 agonists.
NOD1 and NOD2 to produce anti-microbial peptides, but not proinflammatory cytokines.