The best balance of correct classification of both at risk and low risk is achieved with the Winter Nonsense Word Fluency
(NWF) and Spring Oral
To examine absolute response, we used posttest percentile rankings on normative and criterion-referenced measures, including DIBELS phonemic segmentation fluency (PSF) and nonsense word fluency
(NWF), CTOPP sound-matching and blending words, and WRMT-R/ NU Word Attack and Word ID.
Instead, Kamii and Manning stated, "The present study was conducted to investigate the value of two of the DIBELS subtests for the evaluation of an instructional program--Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) and Nonsense Word Fluency
Using nonsense word fluency
to predict reading proficiency in K-2 for English learners and native English speakers.
We first looked at growth in nonsense word fluency
from mid-K through the end of first grade using time (both the linear and quadratic effect), initial LNF and ISF scores, group, and the interaction of time and kindergarten experience as predictors.
The study incorporated three primary dependent measures: phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency
, and curriculum-based pre/postassessments.
The data suggest post-intervention gains for each participant in almost all DIBELS assessment areas, with the exception of Al in nonsense word fluency
and Ike in word use fluency.
Nonsense Word Fluency
(NWF), also a DIBELS subtest, presents students with a series of made up words that they are asked to read as if they were real words.
2% Total 2649 Table 4 Assessments in the DIBELS Suite ofReading Tests Test Grades Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Kindergarten through 1st Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Kindergarten Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Kindergarten through 1st (PSF) Nonsense Word Fluency
(NWF) Kindergarten through 2nd Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) 1st through 3rd Work Use Fluency (WUF) Kindergarten through 3rd Table 5 Documented Reliability Statistics for the DIBELS Tests Study Specific Test(s) Coefficient Shanahan.
In an examination of two path models to reading fluency, Burke, Crowder, Hagan-Burke, Zou, (2009) found that although the skills most often assessed in an RtI model are related one to another, early skills such as phoneme segmentation fluency, letter naming fluency, and nonsense word fluency
do not have a direct effect on oral reading fluency.
In this research, two of the four subtests of DIBELS were administered: phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF) was assessed to measure students' phonological awareness, such as the students' skill to identify and produce the initial sound of a given word; and nonsense word fluency
(NWF) was assessed to measure students' mastery of alphabetical principal, such as students' knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, as well as their ability to blend letters together to form unfamiliar nonsense words.
Results showed statistically significant differences, with large effect sizes favoring PALS on phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency
, and oral reading fluency.