In addition, thymoquinone has also been shown to increase the expression of various organic anion and cation transporters such as OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, and OCT2, which are necessary for the renal clearance of xenobiotic agents including toxins and commonly used drugs [140, 141].
down arrow] urea and creatinine and MRP2 and MRP4 expression [up arrow] OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, Nrf2, and Bcl-2 expression [up arrow] catalase, GPx, and SOD activities [down arrow] NF- [kappa]B, HSP 60 and HSP 70, and Bax expression Naringenin 7 mg/kg, [down arrow] urea, intravenous creatinine, sodium (i.
2007) Downregulation of organic anion transporters OAT1
and OAT3 correlates with impaired secretion of para-aminohippurate after ischemic acute renal failure in rats.
In rats, OAT1 and OAT3 have been shown to be responsible for > 60% of the renal tubular uptake of [Hg.
SNPs that were statistically significantly associated with U-Hg (MRP2, OAT1, OAT3 and LAT1) in at least one country/subgroup are presented.
the estimated diFFerence in lntransformed U-Hg for two genotypes) and corresponding p-values and SEs are presented (Table 3 for MRP2 and Table 4 for LAT1, OAT1, and OAT3).
26) Location/ OAT1 exposure rs4149170 subgroup GA AA p-Value CG (a) Indonesia Low p (n) 0.
Polymorphisms in LAT1, OAT1, and OAT3 were associated with U-Hg, but statistically significant associations were mainly observed in Tanzania.
This may explain why associations with SNPs in OAT1, OAT3 and LAT1 mainly were seen in Tanzania, where the exposure was lowest, but was probably the most stable over time.
Rat renal cortical OAT1
and OAT3 exhibit gender differences determined by both androgen stimulation and estrogen inhibition.