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OGPUObedinennoe Gossudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravleniye
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21) The proceedings at this depot came to the attention of the transport department of the OGPU, which reported on 1 December 1933 that "the depot chief of Pervaia Rechka Egorov and the secretary of the Party organization Bantsevich did not manage operations, but engaged in drinking bouts, lining their own pockets and displayed a self-seeking attitude toward the workers.
No OGPU criteria defined the "rich kulak"; jealous denunciation certainly played a role in designations.
I believe it necessary to show this letter to [Feliks] Dzerzhinsky [the head of the OGPU] with extreme secrecy (no copies) and to all members of the Politburo and to prepare a directive: 'To direct Dzerzhinsky OGPU to work out measures with the assistance of Semashko and to report to the Politburo (two week deadline?
52) In the village of Grachi, for instance, an 1927 OGPU report describes a 'kulak triumvirate, with support of kulaks' as responsible for defeating the 'poor peasants' slate of candidates in local Soviet elections.
Munzenberg was no romantic revolutionary; he was an old Bolshevik to the core, and he would have scorned the idea of personal martyrdom, yet the fact that he did not try to escape to Britain or America gives the lie to Koch's view that he was merely a stalking-horse of Stalin and the OGPU.
The OGPU interrogator, Nilcolay Kristoforovich Shivarov, told Mandeistam in turn "that it was useful for a poet to experience fear ('you yourself told me so').
As a result, the KGB and its predecessors--the Cheka, OGPU and NKVD--each had its own specially trained personnel.
Its functions were: "(1) to monitor, on behalf of the state, all governmental agencies, economic organs, public associations, private organizations, and individuals, and to prosecute officials who violated the law and to scrutinize the validity of their decisions; (2) to directly supervise the investigative agencies, such as the militia and the OGPU (later known as the KGB); (3) to conduct prosecutions in court; and (4) to supervise the penitentiary system.
According to the OGPU (Ob" edinennoe gosudarstvennoe politicheskoe upravlenie, the security police) report on the incident a "massive scandal resulted which compromised the whole brigade.
Y al hacer una nueva lectura de David Rousset, Gustav Herling, Varlato Shalamov o AlexanderSolyenitzin, que denunciaron en su tiempo los campos bolcheviques, cita Semprun al conde Felix Dzerjinsky (hombre de confianza de Lenin y fundador de la Cheka, luego OGPU, NKVD y finalmente KGB) en la octava sesion del Comite Central Ejecutivo Panruso, en 1919: "Propongo mantener los campos de concentracion para utilizar el trabajo de los prisioneros, de los individuos sin ocupacion definida, de todos los que no pueden trabajar sin cierta coercion.
Nonetheless, in keeping with the character of Soviet totalitarianism, the book was banned in 1937 largely because it glorifies not only Stalin but also Genrikh Yahoda, the head of the OGPU, who had been in charge of building the canal but was subsequently purged by Stalin.
His intelligence service OGPU (the predecessor of the KGB) had already infiltrated Britain, which was considered Soviet Russia's most dangerous opponent.