, which means "family" in Arabic, is a DIFI-QNRF joint initiative that unites researchers to study the challenges presently facing Arab families across the region.
While it appears that the traditional conference system has collapsed under OSRA
, carrier cooperation is still significant.
Highly regulated Highly regulated transportation transportation environment environment within Increasing continental nations Little cooperation cooperation Operational constraints regionally in intermodal services Operational constraints in customs and intermodal services North America Geography Two large countries Wide range of densities from coastal highs to inland lows Continental nations Economic Mature market economies, development service based Dominated by containerised imports Transport Mature land infrastructure transportation system Continental hinterlands Trucking and rail dominant Two coastal port ranges: Atlantic and Pacific with ten ports greater than one million TEUs (Figure 1) Institutional U.
To some extent, OSRA
has created a dog-eat-dog environment where, in short, the best negotiator gets the most competitive rates and service.
1998 introduces a number of significant changes.
The article then reviews the key provisions of the 1998 legislation and discusses the impact of OSRA
on shipping conferences and service contracts.
NVOCCs had asked for contracting authority while OSRA
was being negotiated, but were rejected.
For example, WSC offered data showing that the number of registered NVOCCs and ocean freight forwarders in the United States has grown from 2,600 in the days before OSRA
to 2,955 as of June 2003.
provides opportunities to discuss with our customers their specific needs while eliminating non-value-added items that may exist simply because of past practice.
The National Customs Brokers & Forwarders Association of America (NCBFAA) and the International Association of NVOCCs have filed a petition asking the FMC to investigate whether the TSA and its 14 member carriers were intentionally discriminating against intermediaries in violation of OSRA