Most OWW systems in the United States are conventional systems (see Figure 1).
A review of studies conducted over the last several decades suggests a link between OWW systems and groundwater contamination (Ahmed, Neller, 6T Katouli, 2005; Harris, 1995; Vaughn, Landry, 8r McHarrell, 1983; Viraraghavan & Warnock, 1976).
A study in Florida focused on how OWW systems may affect the quality of surface waters and groundwater under the influence of surface water (Paul, Rose, Jiang, Kellogg, & Shinn, 1995).
People served by both private wells and OWW systems might be at greater risk because of the possibility that effluent disposed into the soil might reach the groundwater.
Published studies on outbreak investigations and epidemiologic studies that link OWW systems to disease causation are still limited.
A case-control study by Borchardt, Chyou, DeVries, & Belongia (2003) found that OWW system density was associated with endemic diarrheal illness in children in central Wisconsin.
The Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of CDC funded an external study to investigate the potential link between OWW systems and human exposure to wastewater pathogens in New Mexico.
OWW is now in its 11th year and the names signing up to take part are just getting better and better - but the best thing is, it is open to the general public as well as students.
On from this week until Saturday, January 22, OWW will take over all four venues in Warwick Students' Union with the sounds, and the stars, of all the world's musical genres.
Each event during OWW is themed to create a flavour of the country or continent it is celebrating.
She added: "This year we have worked so hard to create an entertainment schedule for OWW that is as vibrant, exciting and entertaining as possible.
The Judges are assisted by independent research provided by OWW
Consulting, a leading provider of CSR Ratings, Research and Advisory Servicesin Asia and the Middle East.