One patient presented with a left-sided hemothorax from a presumed ruptured PAVM sac.
Once identified, selective catheterization of the branch pulmonary artery was performed using angled catheter (Berenstein, Cook Medical) to identify the diameter and number of feeding arteries of the PAVM targeted for embolization.
Follow-up CT angiography of the chest was performed per our institution protocol every 3-6 months after the procedure to assess for PAVM reperfusion.
Grossly, the specimen showed a picture of abnormal vascular structures with a ruptured aneurysm, and the pathologist reported PAVM tissue under microscope [Figure 6].
sup] Conversely, 30-40% population of HHT has PAVM.
Complications associated with untreated PAVMs
are life threatening hemorrhage and neurological complications.
If the CE is positive, the patient will be scheduled for a chest computed tomography scan with angiography (CTA) because a positive CE alone cannot diagnose a PAVM or describe the size and location of the shunting vessel (Oxhoj, Kjeldson, & Neilsen, 2000).
Patients who do not know whether they have a PAVM or have a known or treated PAVM should follow the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics (HHT Foundation International, 2010a).
The diagnosis of PAVM should be considered in infants with severe cyanosis without a structural cardiac lesion or pulmonary hypertension, after excluding other causes of cyanosis, such as parenchymal lung disease and the rare methemoglobinemia (1, 4).
However, until the present time, its efficacy for the treatment of PAVM has not been clearly demonstrated.
Conclusions: On the basis of this study it is proved that cervical SNAGS is more effective for the treatment of cervicegenic headaches as compared to PAVMs.
consisting of 30 patients received SNAGs while Group B consisting of 30 patients was given PAVMs for the pain management.