Often evaluated alongside PCASP is the implementation of industry's BMP, developed by the shipping industry as a way to protect ships, cargo, and seafarers during transit of the high-risk area.
International crisis-response operations such as naval patrols, the use of PCASP, and the implementation of BMP have proved effective in lowering the number of attacks, but they do not constitute a sustainable answer to the problem.
The rise of PCASP operating aboard merchant vessels poses a number of unanswered legal questions.
Maritime officials agree that PCASP need to be regulated because there is a "glaring absence of regulation," domestically and internationally.
Following this discussion, this Note briefly addresses the rise of private maritime security by examining the methods and backgrounds of PCASP.
While these are positive steps, the degree to which state regulations shape the actual behavior of PCASP teams is unclear.
The IMO has released a series of circulars that make recommendations concerning the use of PCASP teams that are directed at different actors in the shipping and security community.
Number of data hours by year and month for the main aerosol instrument types: Particle number concentration using CPC, CCN concentrations using CCN counters (CCNC), speciated mass concentrations using AMS or ACSM instruments, BC mass concentration using the SP2 instrument, and particle number size distribution (NSD) using SMPS, DMPS, UHSAS, PCASP, DMA, and APS.
Shoreview, MN) UHSAS Ultra-high-sensitivity Droplet Measurement aerosol spectrometer Technologies PCASP Passive Cavity Aerosol Droplet Measurement Spectrometer Probe Technologies (PCASP-100X) OPC Optical particle counter GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH and Co.
Petzold, 2012: Particle sizing calibration with refractive index correction for light scattering optical particle counters and impacts upon PCASP and CDP data collected during the Fennec campaign.
2] COOH (butanoic acid) IO Broadband (BB) CEAS See text PAN Dual-column GC-ECD 90s Black carbon Soot particle 10 s photometer (SP-2) Aerosol PCASP 1 s Cloud physics CDP 1 s Species/parameter Precision, accuracy Synergy with other aircraft Position, winds, u, 0.
2001), concentration and PCASP
, FSSP-100 Heim et al.