PERMIC


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The other Permic language, Udmurt, has considerably fewer cognates than Komi (accordingly 173 clear and 53 dubious cognates and 195 clear and 73 dubious), the difference is 22 clear and 20 dubious stems or 11.
The approximative is quite an old and well-established case in Permic languages, dating back to Common Permic ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1963: 17-18; Csucs 2005: 184).
1988, Historical Phonology of the Uralic Languages with Special Reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic.
In any case, the equation of the Finnic, Mordvin and Permic words is quite convincing, and the underlying Uralic root can be reconstructed as *pucki-.
Previously the Mordvin and Permic verbs mentioned above have been compared to SaaN cahpat chop, but the equation has been considered uncertain (UEW 618).
The fact that effects on focus marking recur cross-linguistically allows us to identify focus-related asymmetry as one of the cross-linguistically relevant subtypes of asymmetric interrogatives, and we find representatives of this type in Finnic, Saamic, and Permic languages.
However, the traces of the 3P verbal marker *-sV exist also in those Volgaic and Permic languages that lack a separate definite conjugation--in Mari, Komi and Udmurt (see also Kortvely 2005 : 30-31).
This is the case in Vogul, in the Permic languages, in Mordvin and in the Samoyedic languages.
Permic (with examples Zyryan Komi e-g 'I was not', o-g 'I am not', Udmurt u-g id.
The first and last significant landmarks in the academic career of Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann were grammars of the Permic and Volgaic languages.
Instead of clearly distinct groups, there may be a continuum of languages in contact, ranging from Finnic, Saamic, Mordvin, Mari, Permic, Hungarian, Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic to Altaic and Paleo-Siberian languages.
Hausenberg indicates numerous exceptional similarities between some of the east- and southward Finnic languages and Permic languages, in particular in case of the Veps, South Estonian and Komi languages and suggests, as a source of these similarities, a kind of a lost link in the chain of languages in the north-eastern area of Europe (Hausenberg 1996 : 180, 182; 2001 : 318; cf.